In recent years, 


the cities of Nampula and Ilha de Moçambique are facing high levels of environmental degradation caused by various factors, such as the proliferation of garbage, deforestation, uncontrolled burning, the water crisis and growing open defecation.

These problems are caused by various factors, from the lack of capacity of institutions to manage solid waste to the poor collaboration of the community. We want to give a voice to and gain a closer understanding 


of the WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) situation in Nampula and on the island of Mozambique, within a context in which Nampula province is facing the worst water crisis in recent years.

According to the Drinking Water Supply Fund, drinking water is becoming increasingly expensive and scarce. And the WHO has estimated that only 63% of the Mozambican population has access to basic water services, 


38% of the population has access to basic sanitation facilities and that the national rate of open defecation is 29%.

Now we’re going to hear from three young residents of the city of Nampula, and from the island of Mozambique, to understand how all this plays out in their daily lives. This will help us better understand the need for more interventions, social and technological innovations in this area.

Good morning, how are you?

Thank you very much.

What’s your name?

Zuleide Posso


How old are you?

Twenty years old.

What do you do for a living?

I’m a student.

Where are you from?


Where do you live?

Mozambique Island.

How has sanitation been in the city of Ilha de Moçambique?

Well, the issue of sanitation in the city of Ilha de Moçambique has been terrible, 


because as we know, sanitation is a set of services that are fundamental to the development of any region and on Ilha de Moçambique it’s water supply, urban cleaning, solid waste management and rainwater management, which has not been very good, especially in the neighbourhoods in the city of Makuti, and I think this is an issue that needs a lot of improvement.

And how have the competent institutions intervened in this area?

Well, I remember that when I arrived here in the first year, 


the sanitation there was very, very flexible, so much so that I admired it a lot because it was different from my city, but for a few years now it’s been a bit disorganized, I don’t know what’s happened to the institutions, and that’s it, the intervention has been very, very minimal.

And what role do young people play in these issues?

Well, I don’t think young people are playing a fundamental role in the issue of sanitation, especially on the island of Mozambique. 02:50

I’ve seen older women play a better role than young people.

Ah, women, right? We know that they go through the menstrual cycle, there’s the issue of menstrual hygiene, the issue of being the head of the family in their homes, looking after the children.  So, how has the water supply situation been with these issues in mind?

Well, first of all, at the Island of Mozambique we have water crises at some point, and not only that, 


nd when it comes to hygiene, which is to prevent diseases, community health, I think it becomes very complicated having this kind of water, in short, on a daily basis. Right.

And in your opinion, what would be the solutions to end these problems you’ve just pointed out?


Firstly, cooperation from all of us. Cooperation from all of us as individuals, as organizations, as people. And secondly, the institutions, I think they had to work harder, especially FIPAG, which supplies the water for the Ilha de Moçambique, has to look more at the issue of cleaning, and all of us, as young people, also had to cooperate so that this could improve.

I’m Momade Mularanja, I’m 29 years old and I live on the island of Mozambique.


What has the sanitation issue been like on Mozambique Island?

I think that in general, the issue of WASH on Ilha de Moçambique has been a big challenge in the last two years because we have seen here in the district that there are some drainage failures in terms of hygiene, 


because I think there are three things together: hygiene, sanitation and water. Now, in terms of being Ilha de Moçambique as a city here, we haven’t had these problems in general, but the Island is divided into two parts, which is the Insular Island, and the Continental Island. Now, for the mainland part, the issue of WASH is a big challenge, 


because there are those neighbourhoods where there is no access to drinking water and also hygiene itself in terms of drainage. There are conditions that are not favorable to the population of these neighbourhoods.

What solutions should be implemented to put an end to these problems?

I know that there are solutions, although it’s a big challenge 


for the island itself as a district, but I think that the solutions that exist here would be to put water in those rural neighbourhoods, in the specific case of Sanculo, but there in Quissanga addition to putting drinking water in those neighbourhoods, also to make people aware, 


in the case of adherence because there are, there may be those there that are called taps, right? Yes, they can exist, but if people stop using them and do their fecalism in the open, they leave the water. These are two different components, which is to first make people aware of these services in the case of the neighbourhoods that exist and also to put the same services in place in the neighbourhoods that don’t exist.


And what is the biggest challenge in terms of sanitation and WASH on Mozambique Island?

The biggest challenge on Ilha de Moçambique, in general, is the question of what? Drainage that is not in good condition, in the case of hygiene, but we have water. The water here, we have drinking water and we’re in good shape.  Now for other neighbourhoods, the other neighbourhoods on the mainland, the big challenge is that it’s not… 


it’s not easy to find the issue of standpipes in some neighbourhoods.

My name is Atija Assane, I’m 15 years old and I’m from the city of Nampula and I’m a student at Muahivir Primary School.

What is the hygiene and sanitation situation at your school?

The hygiene situation at my school is deplorable, the toilets are in a bad state, we don’t even use them, the schoolyard is littered with garbage.

How has the water supply been?

It’s been complicated, why? 


Our school has difficulties with water, especially for us women who are menstruating. We prefer to stay at home because we can’t take care of ourselves before we go to school. Almost all the public schools in Nampula have the same conditions.

And have you approached any authorities about this, have you tried to have a meeting or complain about this situation in the schools?

Just the management. 


They always say they’ll find ways to improve conditions.

Access to drinking water, sanitation, hygiene and women’s and children’s health have been one of the main components of the National Development Plan, but the policies that have been drawn up and implemented have not proved to be effective in the local reality, so there is a need for social interventions to improve the quality of life of the people in this region.